The straightforward problem with level 5 is that even if we know that genes plus environment_1 produce a behavior, we don't know that genes plus environment_2 produce the same behavior. There are at least two possible responses to this problem. First, some human behavioral dispositions may predate the evolution of humans' prodigious cognitive abilities; therefore, those dispositions cannot be changed using those abilities. The rejoinder to this response is that special environmental sensitivity would seem, on the surface, to be a selective advantage (Kitcher, 1987).
Second, certain human behavioral phenotypes may remain constant under diverse conditions (behavioral universals). The rejoinders to this response are two: (1) the previous rejoinder also applies in this case; (2) we must recognize the role of society in human development (Kitcher, 1987).
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